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EDITED

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AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, SYDNEY.

AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA

AND THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS,

BY THE LATE

ALEXANDER WALKER SCOTT;

WHith Illustrations drat from the life by bis Daughters,

HARRIET MORGAN AND HELENA FORDE.

WO iE.

EDITED AND REVISED

BY

HELENA FORDE ann ARTHUR SIDNEY OLLIFF.

SYDNEY: PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

E. P. Ramsay, succEEDED By R. Eruerince, Junr., CURATOR.

1890 - 1898.

INTRODUCTION.

Tue Manuscripts and Drawings of the late Mr. A. W. Scott relating to the life-histories of the Australian Lepidoptera, having passed into the possession of the Trustees of the Australian Museum, it was decided to continue the publication, and the work of editing and revising the Notes was entrusted to the late Mr. A. Sidney Olliff, then Entomologist to the Museum, and afterwards to the Department of Agriculture, and Mrs. H. Forde, a daughter of the late Mr. Scott. Four Parts have been issued, of which the dates of Publication are :—

Part 1. 30 April, 1890. 2. 28 February, 1891. 3. 30 November, 1891. 4. 31 May, 1893.

The death of Mr. Olliff, the imperfect state of the remainder of the Notes, and the retirement of Mrs. Forde, brought the work to a standstill, and the Trustees determined to discontinue it for the present. The four Parts above referred to, with the Title Page and Index issued herewith, will therefore form Vol. Il. of Mr. A. W. Scott’s Australian Lepidoptera.”

Volume I. was published in London in 1864. R. ETHERIDGE, Junr.,

Sypyvery, 3lst October, 1898. Curator.

+?

BIOGRAPHICAL; NO PITCH.

ALEXANDER WALKER Scorr was born at Bombay on the 10th November, 1800, and was the second son of Helenus Scott, M.D., head of the Bombay Medical Staff, and a well-known contributor to medical and scientific literature. He was educated in England, graduating at Peterhouse, Cambridge, as B.A. in 1821, and M.A. in 1824. Shortly afterwards he left England for New South Wales, taking up his residence first in Sydney, but eventually settling upon Ash Island, on the Lower Hunter River, near Newcastle. He represented various local constituencies in the Legislative Assembly, from 1856 to 1861, when he was appointed a member of the first Legislative Council under the new constitution. He was a Trustee of the Australian Museum from 1862 to 1879, when he resigned in consequence of ill health; as one of the original members and sometime President of the Entomological Society of New South Wales, he contributed various papers on entomological subjects to its Transactions, and also to the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. In 1864 he published the first three parts of his Australian Lepidoptera ; and in 1873 a treatise on Mammalia, Recent and Extinct (Class Pinnata). He was engaged at the time of his death, which took place at Sydney on November Ist, 1883, upon a Catalogue of the Seals and Whales in the collection of the Australian Museum.

VOLUME II, PART 1 | | ee > (APRIL 30, 1890.) AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, SYDNEY... | .

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PREFACE,

Tux Trustees of the Australian Museum, in the year 1888, having determined that in the interests of entomological science, the important mass of information regarding the transformations of one of the most noticeable and beautiful orders of insects —the result of years of patient observation and labour—should be made known with as little delay as possible, decided that the valuable manuscripts and drawings relating to the life-histories of our native butterflies and moths, which they acquired by purchase in 1884 from the Executors of the late Alexander Walker Scott, should be made available to students of Entomology and the public. In pursuance of this decision they determined that the manuscripts and the drawings should be published ; and at a meeting held on the 4th December, 1888, they decided that the publication should take the form of a continuation of the work of which three parts were issued by Mr. Scott, in 1864, under the title Australian Lepidoptera and their Transformations. The task of editing and revising the manuscripts was entrusted to us as co-editors, and the entomological notes and descriptions left by Mr. Scott, comprised in six note-books, and a large collection of drawings, were placed in our hands.

The manuscripts contain a series of observations, commencing in 1838 and ending in 1864, made principally in the neighbourhood of Sydney and in the Lower Hunter district, on many hundreds of Lepidoptera; and when it is borne in mind that nothing had been done towards elucidating the life-histories of the Australian Lepidoptera since 1805, when John William Lewin published his Natural History of Lepidopterous Insects of New South Wales, it is obvious that many of the insects described and named by Mr. Scott were new to science. The large additions made, during the last quarter of a century, to entomological literature, and the great amount of work accomplished during the same period by systematic naturalists, have necessarily brought about great changes in the nomenclature and classification of species ; and we have therefore found it necessary, in revising the manuscripts, to substitute the nomenclature employed by recent writers, and to omit all those passages which relate to questions of classification or the limits of genera as then constituted. Indeed it may be said once for all, that the editors are entirely responsible for the nomenclature adopted in this continuation of Mr. Scott's work, and also for the bibliographical references at the head of each description. Wherever it seemed to us desirable, in order to avoid confusion, we have endeavoured to bring the terminology into conformity with modern usage ; and wherever we are able to add anything to the life-histories of the species described in the work, from our own knowledge or from other sources, we have done so, distinguishing our remarks from those of the author by enclosing them within brackets [ J], or appending our respective initials. With these exceptions we have closely followed the text of the original manuscripts, making only such verbal alterations as appeared to us necessary.

Plates X. to XXI., used in the present work, were lithographed and printed in Sydney, previous to 1864, with a view to the continuous issue of the work, which will account for discrepancies between names used on the plates and those adopted in the text. As the Trustees of the Australian Museum felt bound to utilize these plates, which had been executed at considerable expense and had the advantage of being the work of the original artists, this discrepancy could not be avoided ; but no inconvenience will arise

on this account, as in every instance an explanation is given, not only in the text, but also on the explanation facing each plate.

Finally it is hoped that readers will bear in mind the difficulties which always attend a posthumous publication, enhanced in this case, by the long interval of time which elapsed before the manuscripts became the property of the Australian Museum, an interval moreover (1864-1884) singularly barren in workers in this particular field. Those early workers who, like John Abbot in Georgia, Johann Christian Sepp in Surinam, General Hardwicke in India, and Thomas Horsfield in Java, turned their attention to the laborious pursuit of insect biology, deserve some gratitude from those who come after them, and we feel sure that in this connection the name of Alexander Walker Scott will be honourably remembered.

A. SIDNEY OLLIFF.

Sypney: January Ist, 1890. HELENA FORDE.

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INDEX.

Nore.—Species are distinguished by having the Generic name in capital and small capital letters, and the Specific name in italics, thus: Cauvosa triangularis; Synonyms are printed in full italics: Sphinw triangularis ; names of food plants

and general terms, in Roman: Vitis antarctica, Papilio, etc.

absimilis, HOLOCHILA

* Polycyma ... Acacia decurrens Acherontia triangularis Acronychia baueri

Fi leevis

/®notheras Agarista a AGARISTA agricola

a casuarine ...

4 Donovani ... Agarista frontinus AGARISTA glycine

latina

ag Lewini Agarista ostorius agricola, AGARISTA albo-fasciata, Catocala alsulus, LAMPIDES

» Lycena amena, Eulophocampe anacardioides, Cupania anactus, PAPILIO angasti, Huplaa Anocala cabbalistica ... Anona... x

5, cheremolia antarctica, Vitis Antherea .... Ey ANTHERHA astrophela

eucalypti... helena x janetta

Antherea simplex Apple, Custard Asclepiadee ... Ash tree (native)

» native oot astrophela, ANTHEREZA atkinsoni, Ophideres ... atrata, Spanocola... attenta, Boarmia aurantium, Citrus australasie, METAMIMAS australis, Indigofera ...

3 Livistona ... Balsam (common) Balsams Banksize AR? “Bangala Palm baueri, Acronychia ... Boarmia attenta aie

is psychastis ... betica, LYCENA beticus, Papilio

SAE

= 95;

14, 15,

11, 12, cork

wate

|

Brachyglossa triangularis Breynia oblongifolia ... brownii, Scolopia Cabbage tree ... Ba cabbalistica, Anocala ... cameli-pilo, Geometra... camphor laurel (the)... Camphor tree... 4 Camphora officinalis ... Catocala albo-fasciata 3) of SCO = Cassytha paniculata ... cassythe, Polycyma ... casuarine, AGARISTA Chanapa corinna CHARAGIA eximia

lignivora ... a ramsayt cs sceripta

a splendens ... CHARAXES sempronius Chelepteryx expolitus... cheremolia, Anona choredon, Papilio CHRYSOPHANUS erinus Cissus... ss Citron leaves ...

Citrus aurantium Caquosa triangularis Colutea frutescens communis, Phragmites consequana, Wistaria Convolvulus ... coreeba, Hesperra corinna, Chanapa Danais

3 Eupia@a Cudrania javanensis ... Cupania anacardioides Custard Apple damoétes, Papilio Danaids Danais corinna Darata hamata decurrens, Acacia destinataria, G'nophos

7 SELIDOSEMA

disperdita, Tephrosia... Dodonwa viscosa donovani, AGARISTA ... Dolichos elata, Podocarpus elegans, Ptychosperma Eleocarpus obovatus... Epilobium junceum ...

tes 0 OOOO

bo bt bo

Epilobium tetragonum erectheus, PAPILio erinus, CHRYSOPHANUS » Papilio erithonius, Papilio

Eucalypti... sae eucalypti, ANTHEREA Eucalyptus

Eugenia a so

Eulophocampe amena Luplea angasii EupPLia@a corinna eurypylus, Papilio eximia, CHARAGIA : » Phloiopsyche... expolitus, Chelepterya Fop1na ostorius frequens, Polyommatus frontinus, Agarista . . 43 Oputusa ?... + Papilio frutescens, Colutea fusca, Catocala fullonica, OPHIDERES... “Fustic” ae oAe galegifolia, Swainsona Geijera salicifolia Geometra cameli-pilo...

* gilva

é lentiginosa...

Ai recte-fasciata ‘‘gibbung

gilva, Geometra

»» SELIDOSEMA glabrum, Menispermum glycine, AGARISTA

» Phalenoides

Gnaphalium luteoalbum Gnophos destinataria... Goniloba vulpecula graveolens, Ruta greyana, Swainsona ... Haloragis teucrioides hamata, DARALA we Hardenbergia monophylla

“21, 22, 31,

ets

mT,

harveyanum, Sarcopetalum ...

helena, ANTHEREA heliaspis, OONERIA Hemerophila luxuria hernandiefolia, Stephania Hesperia coreeba

Hi phineus hispida, Robinia Hotocuita absimilis... Ichneumon

‘Indigofera australis ... indirecta, Tephrosia ... janetta, ANTHEREA ...

javanensis, Oudrania...

junceum, Epilobium ... Junonia oe met levis, Acronychia...

“INDEX—Continned.

Dreaabix iilestitnie

Oputusa (1) frontinus Ms myops Be senex Orange (the) ... orange-fly ... ostorius, Agarista

PAGE i Se a 23, 24

24 e096 19, 31, 32

- repanda, NerrocoryNE

Robinia hispida ys

Ruta graveolens on

salaminia, Menas ... ce Noctua ... 4; Ophideres

19 6 6

yh 6

Phalena Noctua... salicifolia, Geijera ... 229, Si oe

5 Fopina Salvia... ar aot bes 31

Phalena

Lampipes alsulus ... lanceolata, Persoonia...

Palm, ‘Bangala” _... palmarum, Pamphila Palms (the) ... ors Pamphila palmarum... Paniculata, Cassytha... PAPILIO anactus ee Papilio beticus

latina, AGARISTA... latinus, Phalena ... laurel, camphor =: leguminis, Lycena ... leiocarpum, Nephelium lentiginosa, Geometra Leptospermum scoparium lewini, AGARISTA... FAD; », choredon lignivora, CHARAGIA... rae » damoetes Livistona australis ... PaPiuio erectheus longifolia, Notolea ... Papilio erinus luteoalbum, Gnaphalium » erithonius luxaria, Hemerophila : » eurypylus

») SELIDOSEMA... = » frontinus Lycena alsulus Papitio lycaon Lycana betica LO; 5 macleayanue ... Lycena leguminis Papilio phineus lycaon, PaPILio ae Papiio sarpedon macleayanus, PAPILIO Papilio scottianus Marsdenia suaveolens Papiuio sthenelus Menispermum glabrum Pea, Poison ... Meramimas australasie Persoonia lanceolata... Menas salaminia ... : -Persoonie ... so monophylla, Hardenbergia ... Phalena latinus res myops, OPHIUSA fo i oa native ash... ea

¥ ANG as bs Phalenoides glycine... Nephelium leiocarpum Fe phineus, Papilio ak Nerium (the) ... ‘ib 5 Hesperia Nerrocoryne repanda Phloiopsyche eximia ... Noctua salaminia ... Phragmites communis

» scapularis... pine, native ... Notoleea longifolia... Podocarpus elata oblorgifolia, Breynia... Polycyma absimilis ... obovatus, Eleocarpus ; if cassythe ... OcnertiA heliaspis... Polyommatus frequens officinalis, Camphora... Poison Pea... Ks Oleander trees ie psychastis, Boarmia ... Ophideres_... 3 Ptychosperma elegans Ophideres atkineoni. . Se ramsayi, CHARAGIA ... OpuipeErEs fullonica... recte-fasciata, Geometra

ostorius ste

Noctua islabtinias ee

bist «Or APLATES:

PLATE 10. CamQuosa TRIANGULARIS.

PLATE 11.

OPHIDERES ATKINSONI= 0. salaminia, in text. PHLOIOPSYCHE EXIMIA = Charagia eximia, in text

PLATE 12.

PotycyMA CAssYTHA = Chrysophanus erinus, in ext.

5 ABSIMILIS = Holochila absimilis, in text. PotyomMatTus FREQUENS= Lampides alsulus, in ext. Lycana LEGUMINIS = LZ. betica, in text.

PLATE 13. : ANTHEREA SIMPLEX=A. astrophela, in text. pe PLATE 14,

_ Hesperia COREEBA = Netrocoryne repanda, in text. _ PAMPHILA PALMARUM=P. phineus, in text.

05 Doren A Tis 15, AGARISTA LEWINI. .~ GLYCINE. _ DONOVANI. LATINA,

Sarcopetalum harveyanum ass 6

sarpedon, PAPILIO... scapularis, Noctua ... Scolopia brownii —...

scoparium, Leptospermum

scottianus, Papilio ... scripta, CHARAGIA ... SELIDOSEMA destinataria ne giva ... 3 luaaria ... ef thermea... sempronius, CHARAXES senex, OPHIUSA be simplex, Antheraa ... Spanocala atrata ... Sphinx triangularis ... splendens, CHARAGIA...

Stephania hernandizfolia

sthenelus, PAPILIO suaveolens, Marsdenia Swainsone ... the Swainsona greyana ... 33 galegifolia Tephrosia disperdita... i indirecta ... vagaria ... tetragonum, Epilobium teucrioides, Haloragis triangularis, Acherontia

Brachyglossa

Canquosa

is Sphine .. Trypeta oe ais thermea, SELIDOSEMA vagaria, Tephrosia ... viscosa, Dodona Vitis ... ae

», antarctica te

vulpecula, Goniloba ... Wistaria consequana...

PLATE 16.

PAPILIO ANACTUS.

DANAIS CORINNA= HLuplea corinna, in text.

PLATE 17.

PAPILIO SARPEDON.

fe EURYPYLUS = P. lycaon, in text.

PLATE 18.

SPANOCALA ATRATA = Ophiusa (?) frontinus, in text. CaTocaLA FUSCA=Ophiusa myops, in text. ANOCALA CABBALISTICA = Yodina ostorius, in text. CATOCALA ALBO-FASCIATA = Ophiusa senex, in text.

PLATE 19.

CHELEPTERYX EXPOLITUS =Ocneria heliaspis, in text.

EULoPHOCAMPE AM@NA = Darala hamata, in text.

PLATE 20.

PAPILIO STHENELUS. i‘ MACLEAYANUS.

PLATE 21.

GEOMETRA CAMELI-PILO = Selidosema thermea, in text

GILVA = LENTIGINOSA =

g ila, in text

» destinataria, intext RECTE-FASOIATA= ,,

luwaria, in text.

21, 23, 32 23

12

34, 35

31

8 35 33 34 33 21 26 11 23

AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA.

TRANSFORMATIONS.

CdEQUOSA TRIANGULARIS, Donovan.—(Plate X.) Sphinzx triangularis, Donovan, Ins. New Holl., pl. 33, fig. 2 (1805). Acherontia triangularis, Boisduval, Voy. de d’Astrolabe, Ent., p. 181 (183), Brachyglossa triangularis, Boisduval, Hist. Nat. Ins., Spéc. Gén., Lep., Vol. L., pl. 16, fig. 2 (1836) ; Spéce. Gén. Lép. Heét. (Sphing.), I., p. 9 (1874). Caquosa triangularis, Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 257 (1856). Lire-Hisrory : Boisduval, Spéc. Gén. Lép. Hét.. L., p. 10 (1874); a brief allusion to a drawing by M. Jules Verreaux.

The caterpillars of this species may be met with from October to December, not only along the line of coast extending on either side of Port Jackson, but also in the Newcastle district, wherever in fact the various species of Banksizw and Persoonix abound, yet in point of number they are by no means abundant, being, with the allied Metamimas australasiv, Don., typical insects in all collections of lepidoptera sent from Australia. They have been for many years the especial prey of the collector, the size 5 and showy appearance of the caterpillars, and their habit of taking up an exposed position on the branch on which they happen to be feeding, almost compelling observation. Their destruction may also be aided by a vulgar belief in the noxious qualities of the caterpillar, partly caused by its habit, when molested, of lashing its body violently from side to side, as if eager to attack its opponent, while the spiny, rough an; and the large shining black spots near the tail—commonly mistaken for eyes—add greatly to its vicious appearance.

The full grown or mature larva measures, (*) according to sex, from 4} to 5 inches. The body is cylindrical and tapers. towards the head; the posterior portion being thick, rounded above, and entirely destitute of caudal horn or protuberance. Although they correspond exactly in general marking, they vary much in colour, and we therefore in our present plate figure two of the extremes, in order that those of intermediate shades may be easily recognised. One is of a rich bright green, the whole surface closely covered with small white granulations, disposed transversely, affording to the eye and touch a strong resemblance to shagreen. On each side are seven oblique, yellowish-white bands relieved anteriorly by dark blue, with a yellowish-white, ‘indistinct, oblique band on the thoracic segments, extending from below the middle of the third segment to behind the head, and a similar band on the penultimate segment. Immediately above the caudal feet there is a distinet bright raised black spot, bearing an exact resemblance to the pupil of an eye, so much so indeed, that the casual observer is invariably misled, and points to the posterior portion of the body as the head of the animal. Along the back are two longitudinal rows of yellowish-white spines, fourteen on each segment (seven on each side), and over the oblique bands of yellow, a row of similar spines, passing in a continuous line through two segments, from the ventral to the dorsal aspect of the caterpillar, and another row runs from head to tail just above the feet on each side. The head is green, conical, and slightly bifurcate in front, the terminal portion being of a rusty yellow.

The other larva is of a pale straw-colour throughout, with seven short oblique bands on each side of white, edged broadly with bright purple, the first and last of which are indistinct. A clear bluish-green tint occupies the back. In other respects the insect agrees with the form already described.

The chrysalis (fig. 1) is contained within a nest, on the surface of the ground, formed of dead leaves joined together by a strong but coarse web. It measures 2% inches in length, is of a deep shining black with reddish brown segmental divisions, and in form approximates more to the pupe of the larger Bombycidw than to those of the Sphingidw. The perfect insects take wing principally in January and February, although, like most other species, they may be found occasionally during the whole of the summer months. In expanse they attain to six inches. ;

The Antenne ....long, somewhat setaccous, slightly thickest in the middle, and terminated by a few sete; of the male (fig. 2) covered posteriorly with scales, anteriorly with transverse rows of ciliations arranged in pairs, the upper row being longest and entire—the lower row disunited in the middle, both reeurving to each other at their tips; of the female covered with scales above and naked beneath.

* (In this and the following descriptions the head is considered separately, and the segments are counted antero-posteriorly from one to twelve. The measurements are in terms ofan inch. It is almost unnecessary to add that—a line = .08333 of an inch; a millimetre = .03937 of an inch. —Eps.]

Vou. IL, Parr I.—April 30th, 1890.

6 AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA The Mazille ....short.

The Labial palpi (fig. 8, male) project forwards and upwards to about three-fourths of the eye; second joint robust, nearly four times the length of the basal; terminal minute, nearly obsolete ; the whole covered with hairs which become more bushy at the tip.

Whe Legs” oc ecees strong, sparingly clothed with hair (anterior pair, fig. 4, male), second pair with two, and posterior pair (fig. 5, female) with four spurs, the upper pair of the latter exceedingly small and buried in the hair of the tibie.

Wings deltoid when at rest, the moth being usually suspended by the anterior feet, a position, we observe, generally adopted by all the Sphingide ‘The ground colour of the fore wings is of a rich reddish brown, having on the centre of each, at the costa, a large triangular patch of deeper brown, strikingly relieved outwardly by a powdered mass of white. The abdominal margin is edged by white, and a white patch at the anal angle. The hind wings are likewise of a deep reddish brown, merging into bright orange yellow towards their base, with a whitish triangular patch at the anal angle, and a whitish marginal fringe. The head, thorax and abdomen are robust, and of an olive-brown colour; the patagia edged with a purplish band, which also proceeds along the scutellum and abdomen. The under surface is ochreous, the triangular patch on the upper side of the fore wings being partially defined, with the space between it and the base orange yellow. A faintly indicated bar of white passes transversely through the disc of each wing.

The plant upon which the caterpillars are represented is the Persoonia lanceolata or gibbung” of the aborigines, to the ripe berries of which they are extremely partial, although to Europoans the fruit is insipid and worthless.

The original of the slight sketch, introduced into this plate, is from the able pencil of the late Mr. Conrad Martens, whose finished drawings of Australian scenery are so well known. The view represents the entrance of Port Jackson, with the old Sydney Lighthouse, which formerly occupied the site of the Macquarie Light at South Head.

(C. triangularis is rather widely distributed in Australia, but as far as we are aware it does not extend its range into New Guinea or the adjacent islands; nor has it, as far as we know, been observed in Tasmania. It is particularly abundant on the seaboard side of the great chain of mountains which borders the entire eastern coast-line of Australia, occurring from Cape York, at one extremity of the continent, to Wilson’s Promontory at the other. It may be of interest to add that Mr. Scott has the following note with regard to a batch of C. triangularis larvee which he found in December, 1840 :—* These caterpillars,” he says, “had the usual changes of skin, buat at the last one seemed generally to suffer much. Several remained six days previous to casting the skin, and six days after, without eating.’”’]

OPHIDERES SALAMINIA, Cramer.—(Plate XI.)

Phalena Noctua salaminia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., I1., p. 117, pl. clxxiv., fig. A (1779); Clerk, Icones, pl. xlviii., fig. 5, 6.

Noctua salaminia, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., III., p. 17 (1794).

Meenas salaminia, Hibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 264 ; Moore, Trans. Zool. Soc., London, XI,, p. 71, pl. xiv., fig. 2 (1881); Lep. Ceylon, IIL, p. 134, pl. 161, fig. 1 (1884).

Ophideres salaminia, Guenée, Spec. Gen. Lep., Noct., VIL., p. 115; Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. B.M., XIII., p. 1225 (1857).

Ophideres atkinsoni, Scott, MS.

Lirr-uistory : Moore, Trans. Zool. Soc., London, XI, pl. xii., fig. 3, 3a, 3b, larva and pupa (figures only) from Allipore (Grote), and Java (Horsfield) ; Lep. Ceylon, III., p. 134, pl. 161, fig. la, 1b (1884).

In February we found on Ash Island, Lower Hunter River, feeding on the Sarcopetalum harveyanum, a brood of about twenty half-grown larve, which, from their similarity of markings and general contour, we at once referred to Ophideres fullonica. In course of time, however, one of the number exhibited such marked divergence in colouring from its companions, that we were led to suspect the presence of a second species, a surmise which ultimately proved correct. Three months later we fortunately secured another full grown larva of a reddish colour, and since then several fine specimens have been forwarded to us from Singleton, in the Upper Hunter district, where they were captured feeding on Stephania lernandivfolia, another Menispermaceous plant.

The full grown larva is very handsome, although both in colour and markings it is inferior to Ophideres fullonica. * It is throughout of a deep rich velvety-black, minutely powdered with small spots of white, pale blue, and straw colour, the whole forming a rich combination to which the pencil cannot do justice. On each side of the fifth and sixth segments is a gaudy ocellus, possessing a black pupil with a blue centre, and an iris yellowish above and saturnine-red below. On the back between the ocelli are two oval white spots, one on each segment, and there is a similar white spot on the fourth segment. The penultimate segment bears a reddish prominence, from which proceeds along each side a delicate tracery of white, resembling the fine fibrous roots of a

ay 4

AND THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS, 7

plant ; and a similar but larger tracery rises obliquely upwards from the last of the abdominal feet and passes over the adjoining segment. Dull reddish indistinct spots are placed one on each segment, in the region of the stigmata, and are connected by a flexuous row of small pale straw coloured spots. The head of the caterpillar is black, and the terminal portions of the feet, both thoracic and abdominal, are dull brownish-red. Another caterpillar was of a dull reddish hue, and the white dorsal spots between the ocelli and on the fourth segment were almost obsolete; and a like diversity in colouring existed in those sent to us from Singleton. These larve are half-loopers, the first pair of abdominal feet being nearly obsolete : when at rest they assume fantastic attitudes, generally supporting themselves entirely by their abdominal feet, with the head and anterior segments curved towards the chest, and the posterior extremity elevated. When touched they instantly fall to the ground, where they remain as if feigning death, until danger is past. In length they are about 3} inches; in form cylindrical, not flat beneath, and very fleshy and soft to the touch. The cocoon is formed of leaves so loosely woven together as to afford but a frail protection to the chrysalis, so much so that, if handled, it is apt to fall through. The chrysalis (fig. 1) is 1,*: inch in length, and throughout of a shining black. The perfect insect measures nearly 3} inches in expanse of wings, and remains in the pupa state for about two months.

The Antenne ........ are long, setaceous, basal half almost naked, thence with a row of fine sete on each side to the apex, which is terminated by a tuft of sete.

The AMazwille ........ (fig. 2) short and thick, the basal portion naked, the remainder fringed externally with short cilia, and internally with a few sete, which are succeeded by serrations immediately behind the sharply pointed tip.*

The Labial palpi (figs. 8 and 4) with the terminal joint’ conical, very small, basal and middle joints more robust, the latter about twice the length of the former; the whole closely covered with hair, and projecting upwards and forwards to about even with the top of the head.

The Legs ........ ... powerful ; tibiee of anterior (fig. 5) and posterior (fig. 6) pairs pilose, the latter armed with four long spurs ; second pairs nearly naked, and with two apical spurs.

These moths are nocturnal, but, like other members of the family, if disturbed during the heat of the day, they can fly not only with rapidity, but with great certainty as to direction. The fore wings of this conspicuous insect are trigonate and entire, with the abdominal margin undulating, concave at the inner angle, and towards the base, interrupted by an angular tuft of scales, from which, including the base, springs a very broad subcostal band ending in a point at the tip of the wing. This band is of brilliant silver, delicately striated transversely with lilac lines, and becoming dark green along the costa. A somewhat similar but narrower band, attenuated at the extremities, extends along the outer margin. The intermediate triangular space is dark satiny green, assuming a lustrous brown or golden hue in different lights. A reddish-brown line between the third median nervule and submedian nervure reaches from band to band. The posterior wings are bright orange, with a broad black apical fimbria which, although interrupted at the anal angle, recurves spirally to the middle of the wing. The outer margin alternately fringed with black and white. The palpi, head, and prothorax are pale lilac; the thorax, eyes, and antenne greenish, the former much crested ; abdomen bright yellow and tufted dorsally. The underside of the forewings is brownish, with the base and a transverse bar across the disc ochreous; the hind wings resemble the upper surface, but are very much paler and duller. Thorax, legs, and abdomen are pale yellowish brown.

This description is taken from living specimens recently born and fresh in their plumage, as the brilliant colours fade rapidly after death.

([Ophideres salaminia extends to New Guinea, Java, Singapore, and throughout India, China and Japan. Its larva was reared in Java by Dr. Horsfield on Cissus, and Mr. A. Grote has recorded that it feeds on Menispermum glabrum at Allipore, near Calcutta ; whilst in Ceylon, Mr. I’. Moore informs us, it is found on the same food-plant. We have ourselves observed the young larve on the former plant at Sydney.|

a _

* [Since this deseription was written, the structure of the proboscis in Ophideres has excited considerable interest on account of certain observations which were recorded by M. A. Thozet, of Rockhampton, concerning the capacity for piercing the epicarp of oranges, which he supposed these moths to possess. In a letter in the ‘‘ Rockhampton Bulletin” (May, 1875), he stated that O. fullonica did considerable damage to oranges in Queensland, by puncturing the rind, ex- tracting their juices, and thus causing the fruit to fall. From specimens of the moth forwarded by M. Thozet, detailed accounts of the structure of the proboscis were drawn up by M. J. Kunckel (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4, xvi., pp. 372-374, 1875) and Mr. Francis Darwin (Q. Journ. Micr. Sc., xv., pp, 384-389, 1875). In both articles reference is made to the manner in which the organ is brought into use. M. Kiinckel describes the proboscis as a “veritable auger,’ while Mr. Darwin says—“ It is clear that in using its proboscis the insect must employ a thrusting action, and not any kind of revolving movement; the proboscis must accordingly be considered as a saw, not as an auger or gimlet. It is, in fact, a bayonet-shaped saw, and must, therefore, have three cutting edges.” Mr G. L. Pilcher (Cistula Ent. ii., pp.237-240, 1887), who appears to have had opportunities of examining the living insects, states that the Ophideres attacks the guava, banana, and peach, as well as the orange. He doubts the capacity of the moth to perforate the skin of the fruit with its proboscis, the instrument appearing to him adapted for enlarging a hole already existing, rather than for boring ; and he contends that the Ophideres merely enlarges the punctures already made by other insects, especially by the larvie of the orange-fly (7rypeta). Excellent figures of the distal extremity of the proboscis of O. fullonica and O. salaminia will be found in a paper contributed by Mr. R. B. Read to the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales for 1878.”—A.S.0.]

8 AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA

CHARAGIA EXIMIA, Scorr.—(Plate XI, ¢)

Oharagia eximia, Scott, Trans, Entom, Soc., New South Wales, IT., p. 35 (1867); description of male.

Phloiopsyche exinia, Scott, MS.

Lire-HIstory : Scott, loc. cit.

We presented to our readers in Vol. I., Plate 2, two species of Charagia, and we now add another example of this beautiful genus, regretting, however, that we can only figure the male, as we were unfortunately unsuccessful in our attempts to rear most of the caterpillars we had collected, owing to the shrinking of the wood in which they lived.

We purpose to continue the series of these peculiarly Australasian insects, and hope in time to furnish illustrations of the transformations of two of the largest and most conspicuous species, Charagia Ramsayi and C. scripta. We cannot add anything new in respect to the habits and metamorphoses of this insect, as these agree precisely with the characters we have previously given in detail of this group, and we must consequently refer the reader to our previous remarks for all particulars relating thereto. The larve were found at one time in considerable numbers at Ash Island, in the small stems or branches of the Dodonea viscosa, Linn.; but the destruction of these plants in the process of clearing the lands for cultivation in that particular locality, has since rendered the attainment of this species a matter of difficulty to us. This caterpillar is cylindrical and fleshy, except the head and adjoining segment, which are rough and corneous. The segments are muscular and well developed, and of a dull creamy white, tinged with purplish red at their divisions, and also around the various longitudinal wrinkles which are placed at the lower portion of each segment. ‘The caterpillar is also slightly setigerons. The females are about 44 inches in length, the males smaller.

The chrysalis (fig. 1, male) measures rather more than 1 inch, stoutest at the anterior portion. The colour yellowish-white, becoming dark brown towards the head, where it is rough, corneous, and slightly setigerous: the abdomen encircled with hard ridges. The male of the perfect insect measures 3 inches in expanse.

The Antenne ........ (fig. 2, male) very short, setaceous, slightly moniliform, delicately ciliated above, with a few fine sets beneath.

The Labial palpi (figs. 3 and 4) very small, projecting forwards and slightly downwards, and thinly covered with hair; terminal joint minute and conical ; basal about one-third less than the second, and somewhat inflated.

Phe Siege: ceccce with the anterior (fig. 5, male) and intermediate pairs long and powerful, densely and compactly clothed with hair; posterior (fig. 6, male) small, weak, covered sparingly with hair; tibiz furnished exteriorly with a long tuft of golden coloured hair.

The moth, when at rest, suspends itself by its powerful anterior feet, the tips of the wings meeting beneath the abdomen, See is not recurved as in Charagia lignivora and C. splendens before described,

The superior wings are falcate in a greater degree than in any of our other species, and the ground colour throughout is of a pale emerald green, chastely relieved by a series of numerous short slightly curved lines, exhibiting a chain-like pattern of bright silver disposed transversely, each link, however, being interrupted by the nervures. These lines become, towards the base, more irregular and labyrinthic. A dull golden band, also interrupted by the nervures, passes transversely through the disc, commencing close to the costal, and terminating near the inner margin. The hind wings are of pale bluish green, partially clothed towards the basal portion and abdominal margin with short silvery hairs. The cilia at the outer angle golden brown. The head, prothorax, and patagia, similar in colour to the fore wings ; the thorax and abdomen to that of the hind wings, and covered on the upper portion with silvery hairs. Eyes large, projecting, and dark purplish-brown. The underside is of a uniform pale whitish- green, glossed with a golden tinge towards the tips of the wings.

We have represented the male insect and the caterpillar in a branch of the Dodonea viscosa, or Native Hop, so called from the winged seed capsules with which the plant is liberally covered.

(During the past ten or twelve years Charagia eximia has been obtained by breeding in considerable numbers in the Lower Hunter district. Indeed, for the past two seasons—as I am in a position to state from personal observation—it has been the most abundant species of the genus, not only in that locality, but also in the immediate vicinity of Sydney. Mr. Scott suspected from the large size of some of his larve, that the male described above—the only example which he succeeded in rearing—was undersized; but this has not proved to be the case. The males vary from 62 to 66mm. in expanse, and the females from 100 to 112mm. The following is a brief description of the latter sex :—

? Antenne brownish red. Head, thorax, apex of abdomen, and the anterior and intermediate legs bright grass-green ; basal half of abdomen pinkish salmon colour; posterior legs pinkish yellow. Fore-wing bright grass-green, obscurely mottled with transverse irregular wavy lines between the veins; three moderately large silvery spots beyond the cell, indistinctly encircled with brown, arranged obliquely one behind the othor; two very obscure brownish spots above anal angle, sometimes centred with silver; costa marked with six or seven longitudinal brownish patches at intervals; outer margin narrowly, and inner margin conspicuously, margined with brown. Hind-wing pinkish salmon colour, pale golden yellow externally, veins on outer margin bright golden yellow; underside pale salmon colour, suffused with golden yellow; costa of forewing and hindwing obscurely barred with brown.—A.8.0. |

AND THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS. 9 CHRYSOPHANUS ERINUS, Fasricius.—(Plate XII., 9, and Underside).

Papilio erinus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 525 (1775) ; Donovan, Ins. New Holl. pl. 31, fig. 3 (1805).

= Chrysophanus erinus, Olliff, Proc. Linn. as N.S. Wales, x., p. 717 (1886). af tie deroudromy wy bel Polycyma cassythe, Scott, MS.

During the summer months we have frequently found these caterpillars feeding on the Cassytha paniculata, to the long tendrils of which they adhere by means of their viscous and slug-like bodies. When full grown they measure about 11 lines in length, are limaciform, slightly pubescent, and laciniate, with the back elevated, and head and feet minute. In some the colour throughout is of a beautiful pale green, in others the back is yellowish, each side edged: by a row of small red spots, and with a conspicuous red patch at the anterior and posterior portions.

The chrysalis, in length nearly.7 lines, is of a light pinkish fawn colour, with several longitudinal rows of small black spots; the anterior portion bifurcate, the abdomen much compressed laterally, and broader than the thorax; dorsal portion ridged, and terminating in a sharp point. Attached by the tail, and girt by a silken medial band, with the head upwards. The female perfect insect attains to 1} inches in expanse; the male is slightly smaller.

The Antenne ........ (fig. 1, female) terminate in an elongated club, not grooved laterally.

The Labial palpi (fig. 2, female) large, second joint more than double the length of terminal; male, three times the length of terminal; in both slender and acuminated at the apex, and almost naked; basal joint small; this and the second moderately scaly and hairy ; the whole projecting forwards and slightly upwards

ALS (NR! BY & Reape pr? with the anterior pair perfect in both sexes; second and posterior pairs (fig. 3) with two small spurs on tibie ; tibie and tarsi, sparingly covered with scales, the latter also setigerous. Pulvilli large, claws minute.

The upper surface of the male is throughout of a shining purplish brown, deepening slightly towards the margins, with the cilia whitish; the female shining purplish blue, broadly margined with black. In both sexes the thorax, head, and abdomen are purplish brown. With respect to the under surface, both sexes are alike, being throughout of a light silvery grey ; on the forewings two transverse rows of small indistinct brown patches, the two adjoining the anal angle large and black; two small marks on the exterior margin of the discoidal cell. The hindwings are occupied by numerous brownish patches.

Figures of the upper and under surface of the female butterfly, and the larve and chrysalis on the Cassytha paniculata, are given in the present illustration.

[C. erinus has been recorded from Bowen, Rockhampton, and Gayndah, in Queensland, and from various localities in Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. | /

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HOLOCHILA ABSIMILIS, Ferprr.—(Plate XII, ¢, 9, and Underside).

Holochila absimilis, Felder, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, xii., p. 490 (1862) ; Reise Novara, Lep., ii., p. 261, pl. 32, fig. 14, 15 g, 16 9 (1865). Polycyma absimilis, Scott, MS.

This species is more common, and at the same time more beautiful, than the preceding one, the metallic lustre of the male showing to great advantage when the little creature darts with rapid wing around the tops of trees, ever and anon returning nearly to the same spot, and expanding its wings in the full enjoyment of the sunshine, very unlike the feeble and wavering movements of Lampides alsulus and Lycena betica.

The larva is limaciform, the body laciniate, the back slightly elevated; a lateral ridge in the region of the stigmata, projecting angularly near the posterior extremity, which is flattened and truncated; the first segment bifurcated, protruding beyond and hiding the minute black head. Generally the body is throughout a beautiful pale green, but an occasional specimen is met with of a dull fleshy tint. When full grown it measures 11 lines in length, is viscous, and like the preceding species exudes some matter highly attractive to ants, numbers of which may be seen crawling over and caressing the larve with their antenne. We find these caterpillars most frequently on the tender shoots and leaves of the Cupania anacardioides, but they are also met with on Wistaria consequana and Robinia hispida, both imported plants.

The chrysalis is found with the head upwards, and is supported by the tail and a medial band; is about 7 lines in length, and of a pale pinkish brown powdered over with black; on each side of the abdomen a longitudinal row of four crimson spots