^1 K

u K' >?|" te ?»A

UK

-

' ' ? If,-,:

^V '

-.•;••£?.

THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

SIXTH

SEVENTH

EIGHTH

NINTH

TENTH

ELEVENTH

edition, published in three volumes,. 1768—1771.

ten 1777—1)84.

eighteen 1788 1797.

twenty 1801 1810.

twenty 1815 1817.

twenty 1823 1824.

twenty-one 1830 1842.

twenty-two 1853 1860.

twenty-five 1875 1889. ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.

COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention

by THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

A II rights reserved

THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXIII

REFECTORY to SAINTE-BEUVE

Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 191 1

E3

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company

A. G.*

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS,1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. Ch. A. B. CHATWOOD, Ass.M.lNST.C.E., M.INST.ELEC.E. \ Safes, Strong-rooms and Vaults.

A. C. G. ALBERT CHARLES LEWIS GOTTHILF GUENTHER, M.A., M.D., PH.D., F.R.S. f

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist,] DO_«:I«C. w«t~,«, t;~ Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogue cf Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, 1 KePtlles- History (in part) and Fishes in the British Museum ; &c.

A. D. HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D. / D . .

See the biographical article: DOBSON, HENRY AUSTIN. \ Richardson, Samuel.

A. D. Mo. ANSON DANIEL MORSE, M.A., LL.D. r

Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst -< Republican Party. College, 1877-1908.

ARTHUR GAMGEE, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P., LL.D., D.Sc. (1841-1000). f ..

Formerly Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal Institution of Great Britain, and I ResPiratory System: Move- Professor of Physiology in the University of Manchester. Author of Text-Book of] ments of Respiration.

the Physiological Chemistry of the Animal Body; &c.

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. / Dlhadpnpira Ppdro A

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.

A. H.* ALBERT HAUCK, D.Tn., D.Pn.

Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director of the

Museum of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of Saxony. Member

of the Royal Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of the 4 Relics.

Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; &c. '

Editor of the new edition of Herzog's Realencyklopddie fur protestantische Theologie

und Kirche.

t

A. Ha. ADOLF HARNACK, D.Pn. f _ . ...

See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. \9

A. H.-S. SlR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. f p . ,

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

A. H. Sm. ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. I Ring (in part). Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of 1 Greek Sculpture in the British Museum ; &c.

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. f Rp?iomontanus

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. \ Keg101

A. M. F. D. AGNES MARY FRANCES DUCLAUX. J

See the biographical article: DUCLAUX, A. M. F. \

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. f Rhea; Rifleman-bird;

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. \ Roller (Bird) ; Ruff.

A. P. H. ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P. <

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War,

1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till -j Rhodesia: History (in part). 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.

A. S. P.-P. ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J DoM Thmnoc <;~ j>».i\ Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. \ Reld» Tnomas (>n part). Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.

A. S. Wo. ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S. f DeDtiies. TJiitnrv (in barh and

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of \ * the Geological Society, London. I General Characters.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

1992

vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. / _

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ KeglClue, Rienzi, Cola di.

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws "i Rent. of England.

Fellow, Tutor and Librarian of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Religion of\ Roman Religion. Ancient Rome; &c.

C. B. P. CATHERINE BEATRICE PHILLIPS, B.A. (Mrs W. ALISON PHILLIPS). /Robes.

Associate of Bedford College, London.

C. E.* CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S.,-F.R.A.S. /Refraction: Refraction of

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. \ Light.

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. f Rjfle f{n pan\ .

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal •{ D-.CCKO.,V, Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. ( "oss

C. H. Ha. CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M.,. PH.D. f

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Members Rosary. of the American Historical Association.

C. H. W. J. REV. CLAUDE HERMANN WALTER JOHNS, M.A., Lrrr.D. f Sabbath- Babylonian and

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Canon of Norwich. Author of \ . Da°yl°

Assyrian Deeds and Documents. I Assyrian.

C. L. K. CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HiST.S.

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor

Richard II.; Richard III.; Rivers, Richard Woodville,

Earl*

of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London.

Russell, Bishop.

C. Mi P. CHARLES MURRAY PITMAN. ("

Sometime Scholar of New College, Oxford. Formerly Stroke of the Oxford Uni- \ Rowing. versity Eight.

C. R. B. CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.HiST.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Rubruquis, William of of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. \ i^n t>ari\ Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

C. We. CECIL WEATHERLY. f Saddlprv and

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. \

D. B. Ma. DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D. i

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. J Rum Or Roum. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional ] Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.

D. C. T. DAVID CROAL THOMSON. ("

Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon \ Rousseau, Pierre E. T. School of Painters ; Life of " Phiz " ; Life of Bewick ; &c.

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. . f Rnvthm- in music-

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The \ D j Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. )nuO.

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. f

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal \ Rigging. Navy ; Life of Emilia Castelar ; &c.

D. H. M. DAVID HEINRICH MULLER, D.Pn.

Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Vienna. Hofrat of the Austrian < Sabaeans. Empire. Knight of the Order of Leopold. Author of Die Gesetze Hammurabi; &c. [

D. LI. T. DANIEL LLEUFER THOMAS.

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and ] Rhondda. Rhondda.

D. M. W. SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officier de 1'Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of New Volumes (loth ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c.

Russia: History (in part).

D. R.-M. DAVID RANDALL- MACIVER, M.A., D.Sc. r

Curator of Egyptian Department, LTniversity of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester \ Rhodesia: Archaeology. Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia ; &c. [

E. B. EDWARD BRECK, M.A., PH.D. r

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. \ Sabre-fencing. Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c.

f Robert Guiscard;

E. Cu. EDMUND CURTIS, M.A. » J Roppr T of S! =,'.

Keble College, Oxford. Lecturer on History in the University of Sheffield. [ £°!|£ {j of Sicily

E. C. B. RIGHT REV, EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, M.A., O.S.B., D.LITT. f

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," ~\ Sabas, St. in Cambridge Texts and Studies.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

Vll

E. F. S.

E.G.

E. Gr. E. Ha. E.He.

E. H. B. E. H. M.

E. L. B. E.G.*

E. Pr.

F. C. C. F. G. P. F. G. S.

F. Ha. F. J. H.

F. J. S. F. LI. G.

F. L. L. F. P.

F. R. C. F.We.

EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. f

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of J

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor 1 of Bell's " Cathedral Series.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND.

ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A.

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.

REV. EDWIN HATCH, M.A., D.D.

See the biographical article: HATCH, EDWIN.

EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A.

Gonville and Cains College, Cambridge. Society, London.

Librarian of the Royal Geographical -j

L

Repin, Ilja.

Rhyme; Rhythm (in verse);

Rimbaud, Jean;

Rivers, Anthony Woodville,

Earl;

Rossetti, Christina; Runes, Runic Language

and Inscriptions; Rydberg, Abraham; Saga.

Rhodes (in part).

Sacrifice: In the Christian Church.

Rudolf (Lake); Ruwenzori; Sahara (in part).

SIR EDWARD HERBERT BUNBURY, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; \ Rhodes (in part). &c. t

ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A. f

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian \ Russian Language, at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.

EDWARD LIVERMORE BURLINGAME, A.M., PH.D. /_

Editor of Scribner's Magazine. Formerly on the Staff of New York Tribune. \ '"P16*' George.

EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. [

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,

Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Ex- -I Respiratory System: Surgery. aminer in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of A natomy for Senior Students.

EDGAR PRESTAGE.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex- aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal ' Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicles of Guinea ; &c.

Resende, Andre de; Resende, Garcia de; Ribeiro, Bernardim; Sa de Miranda, Francisco de.

FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. r

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. I _ Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and] Sacrament. Morals; &c.

FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. r

Vice- President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on J Reproductive System; Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 1 Respiratory System: Anatomy. London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.

F.

Formerly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home ; George Cruik- J Rossetti' Dante Gabriel (in

shank ;_ Memorial s_of W. Mulready; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Land-~\ part).

seer; T. C. Hook, R.A.; &c.

FREDERIC HARRISON.

See the biographical article: HARRISON, FREDERIC.

FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.

FREDERICK JOHN SNELL, M.A.

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c.

J Ruskin, John.

Roman Army.

J Robin Hood (in part).

FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. c

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey J Rosetta. and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1

German Archaeological Institute.

LADY LUGARD.

See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F. J. D.

FRANK PODMORE, M.A. (1856-1910).

Sometime Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford. Mesmerism and Christian Science; &c.

J Rhodes, Cecil.

Author of Modern Spiritualism ; J Retro-cognition.

FRANK R. CANA. f Rhodesia: History (in part);

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ Sahara (in part).

FREDERICK WEDMORE.

See the biographical article: WEDMORE, FREDERICK.

! Ribot, Theoduie

viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. [ Rock-Crystal;

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. | p. ,•,-,•:,! President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. lle>

G. A.* GERTRUDE FRANKLIN ATHERTON. f

Author of Rezdnov ; A ncestors ; The Tower of Ivory ; &c. \

G. Ch. GEORGE CHRYSTAL, M.A., LL.D.

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University, -j Riemann, Georg. Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. I

G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D.

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard I „„.„ i-i,_ Cosway, R.A.; George Englekeart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of the New] eu> Jonn

Edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.

G. Du. GEORGE DUTHIE, M.A., F.R.S. (Edin.). /Rhodesia: Geography and

Director of Education, Southern Rhodesia. I Statistics.

G. J. T. GEORGE JAMES TURNER. f

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Sclden -j Ridings. Society.

G. R. P. GEORGE ROBERT PARKIN, LL.D., C.M.G. / Rhodes, Cecil: Rhodes

See the biographical article: PARKIN, G. R. I Scholarships.

_ f Retz, Cardinal de;

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, LL.D., D.C.L. I Rom,ni>_. Rnll<;arH.

See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, GEORGE E. B.

( Rousseau, Jean Jacques.

G. Sn. GRANT SHOWERMAN, A.M., Pii.D.

Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological j

Institute of America. Member of the American Philological Association. Author of 1 Rhea (Mythology).

With the Professor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c.

H. B. HILARY BAUERMANN, F.G.S. (d. 1909).

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of ^ Safety-Lamp. A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. {

H. Br. HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. f

Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British •] Riddles. Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making. of English; &c.

H. B. M. THE VERY REV. CANON H. B. MACKEY, O.S.B. f ,;.,.,_.., Hooi

Author of Four Essays on St Francis de Sales. \ *

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f Ron.--.,-*..*!,.,,.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 1 1 th edition of 1 "' I. ,

the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the loth edition. ' Rosebery, Earl Of.

H. De. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. r pocj, g*.

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecla Bollandiana •< and Ada. Sanctorum. [ Rupert, St; Saint.

H. E. KARL HERMANN ETHE, M.A., PH.D.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 1 Sa'di. London (Clarendon Press) ; &c.

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S. , PH.D. f_ ...

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge.-! Reptiles: Anatomy and Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History. [ Distribution.

H. F. P. HENRY FRANCIS PELHAM, LL.D., D.C.L. f Rome: Ancient History

See the biographical article: PELHAM, H. F. ^ (fn part)

H. Go. HENRY GOUDY, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. r

Regius Professor of Civil Law, Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls' College. Author -< Roman Law.

of The Law of Bankruptcy in Scotland ; &c.

H. H. HENRI SIMON HYMANS, PH.D.

Keeper of the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa •{ Rubens (in part), vie et son ceuvre.

I Respiratory System: H. L. H. HARRIET L. HENNESSY, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. Pathology (in part);

( Rheumatoid Arthritis. H. M. V. HERBERT M. VAUGHAN, F.S.A.

Keble College, Oxford. Author of Tlie Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; \ St Davids. The Last Stuart Queen.

H. R. T. HENRY RICHARD TEDDER, F.S.A. f

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. \ Rymer, Thomas.

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. /

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism. \ Relativity Of Knowledge.

H. S. J. HENRY STUART JONES, M.A. [ Roman Art;

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J Rome: Ancient City (in part), School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author 1 Christian Rome (in part) and of The Roman Empire ; &c. Ancient History (in part).

H. S.-K. SIR HENRY SETON-KARR, C.M.G., M.A. f

M.P. for St Helen's, 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c. \ Rlfle'

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

IX

H. Tr. SIR HENRY TROTTER, K.C.M.G., C.B.

Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania, J Rumania* Historv (in Dart) 1894-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878.

Richard, Earl of Cornwall;

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A.

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, - 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.

H. W. S. H. WICKHAM STEED.

Richard I.; Richard of Devizes; Robert of Gloucester; Roger of Hoveden; Roger of Wendover.

ICKHAM STEED.

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 4 Ricasoli Baron. ^

H. Y. SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., C.B. j?1^1' M?tte°'.11.

See the biographical article: YULE, SIR HENRY. 'I Rubruquis, William of

I (in part).

1. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. f Ritual Murder;

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. I Sabbalai Sebi;

Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short I Sabbatiorr

History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. I S h M'' h 1

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.

J. A. S. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS, LL.D.

See the biograph'

J. Bra. JOSEPH BRAUN, S.J.

See the biographical article: SYMONDS, J. A. { Renaissance.

;PH BRAUN, S.J. f

Author of Die Lilurgische Gewandung; &c. 1 KOChet.

J. Bt. JAMES BARTLETT.

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's J Roofs College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior 1 Engineers.

J. B. B. JOHN BAGNALL BURY, D.Lrrr., D.C.L. f _ _

See the biographical article: BURY, J. B. \ Roman Empire, Later.

J. B. M. JAMES BASS MULLINGER, M.A. r

Lecturer in History, St John's College, Cambridge. Formerly University Lecturer

in History and President of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Birkbeck Lecturer < Richard of Cirencester. in Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1890-1894. Author of History of the University of Cambridge ; The Schools of Charles the Great ; &c.

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S.

King's College, Cambridge. ; Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J R. rt h T Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 ' "ovan-

Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.

J. E. C. REV. JOSEPH ESTLIN CARPENTER, M.A., D.Lrrr:, D.D., D.Tn. r

Principal of Manchester College, Oxford. Author of The First Three Gospels, their -! Religion. Origin and Relations ; The Bible in the Nineteenth Century ; &c.

J. F. H. B. SIR JOHN FRANCIS HARPIN BROADBENT, BART., M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. r

Physician to Out- Patients, St Mary's Hospital, London ; Physician to the Hamp- J _.

stead General Hospital ; Assistant Physician to the London Fever Hospital. ] Rheumatism.

Author of Heart Disease and Aneurysm; &c.

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, Lrrr.D., F.R.HiST.S. f

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McCoIl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. •< Ruiz, Juan. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A" History of Spanish Literature; &c.

J. F. M. JAMES FULLARTON MUIRHEAD, LL.D.

Editor of many of Baedeker's Guide Books. Author of America, the Land »/•! Rhine (in part). Contrasts. I

J. F. W. JOHN FORBES WHITE, M.A., LL.D. (d. 1004). f Rembrandt (In toarfi

Joint-author of the Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A. ; &c. t

*& J. G. His EMINENCE CARDINAL TAMES GIBBONS. f Roman Catholic Church:

See the biographical article : GIBBONS, JAMES. \ United States.

J. G. H. JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I.MECH.E. f Rolling-mill

Author of Plating and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c. I

J. H. A. H. JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A. I gadducees

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge.

Rietschel, Ernst;

J. H. M. JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., Lrrr.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South' Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.

Ring (in part) ;

Rome: The Ancient City (in

part) ; and Christian Rome

(in part);

Round Towers. J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D.

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family -! Register. History; Peerage and Pedigree.

x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

J. H. R.* JAMES HARVEY ROBINSON, A.M., PH.D. [

Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Author of Petrarch, lhe~\ Reformation, The. First Modern Scholar ; History of Western Europe ; &c.

J. HI. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., Lin.D.

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J Reichstadt, Duke of. University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies ; The Development of the European Na'ions ; The Life of Pitt ; &c.

J. H. V. C. JOHN HENRY VERRINDER CROWE. f

Lieut.-Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of I Russo-Turkish War- Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History -j , K\ and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78; &c.

J. J. L.* REV. JOHN JAMES LIAS, M.A. f

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and I Reuscn franz H Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. Author of Miracles, Science | and Prayer ; &c.

J. J. T. SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON, D.Sc., LL.D., PH.D., F.R.S.

Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- bridge. President of the British Association, 1909-1910. Author of A Treatise on J\ Rontgen Rays. the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism ; &c.

J. L. W. JESSIE LAIDLAY WESTON. f Round Tahla Th*

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ " 3le>

J. Mt. JAMES MOFFATT, M.A., D.D. f

Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. -< Romans, Epistle to the. Author of Historical New Testament; &c.

J. S. F. JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. f

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Rhyolite burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby ] Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

J. S. H. JOHN SCOTT HALDANE, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. r

Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Physiology. Metro- Respiratory System: Physio- politan Gas Referee to the Board of Trade. Joint-editor and founder of the Journal < of Hygiene. Author of Blue-books on " The Causes of Death in Colliery Explo- sions ' ; &c. L

J. S. R. JAMES SMITH REID, M.A., LL.M., LITT.D., LL.D. f Jj11?01}1' Friedrich W.;

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, I Kuhl ken> David; Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of Christ's College. | RutiliUS, Claudius Editor of Cicero's Academica; De Amicitia; &c. Namatianus.

J. T. Be. JOHN THOMAS BEALBY. r Riga (in part) ;

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical J Russia: Geography and Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. {_ Statistics (in part).

J. T. S.* JAMES THOMSON SHOTWELL, Pn.D. f Richelieu, Cardinal;

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 1 Sacrilege.

J. W. JAMES WILLIAMS, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. f Roman catholi<

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln 4 , . College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Law of the Universities; &c. L English Law.

J. Wai.* JAMES WALKER, M.A. r

Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Clarendon Laboratory. Formerly J Rotmntmn- n u Vice- President of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Light; 1 * &c. [

J.We. JULIUS WELLHAUSEN, D.D. Juoi.vo T,,*,,,

See the biographical article: WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS. \ * 15Ke> Jonann Jacol)-

J. W. H. JOHN WESLEY HALES, M.A.

Emeritus Professor of English Literature at King's College, London. Hon. Fellow,

formerly Fellow and Tutor, of Christ's College, Cambridge. Clark Lecturer in \ Robin Hood (in part).

English Literature at Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Shakespeare Essays

and Notes ; Folia Litteraria ; &c. I

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. r peeaj. p

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the \ ,, .. ' Orchestra. [ aaCKDUl.

L. F. A. LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT. f

President of The Outlook Company, New York. \ Roosevelt, Theodore.

L. F. V.-H. LEVESON FRANCIS VERNON-HARCOURT, M.A., M.lNST.C.E. (1839-1907).

Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. Author j HJVPI. Ensineerin? of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Con-] Engineering.

struction ; &c. [

L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A. r

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of J Rutile Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor okthe Mineral- } ogtcal Magazine.

L. L. S. LIONEL LANCELOT SHADWELL, M.A. J _

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. One of H.M. Commissioners in Lunacy. \ Ke8istratlon-

M. A. MATTHEW ARNOLD. f Q . , _

See the biographical article: ARNOLD, MATTHEW.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

xi

M. Cr. M. G.

M. Ha. M. H. S.

M. 0. B. C. M. P.*

N. W. T.

0. A.

0. Ba. 0. M.*

P. A. A.

P. A. K. P. C. M.

P. Gi.

P. G. K.

P. V. R. A. N.

R. C. J. R* H* C.

FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD.

See the biographical article : CRAWFORD, F. MARION.

MOSES CASTER, PH.D.

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England.

J _ „, . "

Vice- President, Zionist

Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine J ..... Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-] iumalua: Literature. President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature ; &c.

MARCUS HARTOG, M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S.

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork.

bridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.

Author of " Protozoa," in Cam-

fRhizoDoda- •<

tera-

MARION H. SPIELMANN, F.S.A.

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- Relief; national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco-British J RRnnii«B- Exhibition, London. Author of History of " Punch " ; British Portrait Painting ] to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British "OUblliac, LOUIS Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.

MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, M.A.

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.

LEON JACQUES MAXIME PRINET.

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives.

Rhodes (in part) ; Romanus I.-IV. (Eastern Emperors).

Auxiliary of the Institute I Retz, Seigneurs and Dukes of;

of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L'Industrie du sel\ Rouault Joachim. en Frenche-Comte; Francois I et le comte de Bourgogne; &c. I

NORTHCOTE WHITRIDGE THOMAS, M.A.

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Socidte d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in A ustralia ; &c.

OSMUND AIRY, M.A., LL.D.

e •«

H.M. Divisional Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of J n ...

Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. 1 Russell> Lo™ William.

Education.

Editor of the Lauderdale Papers ; &c.

.

OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. f

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the -I Russell (Family). Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I

OCTAVE MAUS, LL.D.

Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of L'Art Moderne and of I the Libre Esthetique. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of the -s Rops, Felicien. Legion of Honour. Author of Le Thedtre de Bayreuth; Aux Ambassadeurs ; Malta, Constantinople et la Crimee; &c.

PHILIP A. ASHWORTH, M.A., Doc. JURIS. New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. of the English Constitution.

Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History*, Rhine (in part).

PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN.

See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P. A.

and . Statistics (in part).

PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. r

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- J Regeneration of Lost Parts; parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author | Reproduction: of Animals. of Outlines of Biology ; &c.

PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., Lirr.D. f

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J c Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological j Society.

PAUL GEORGE KONODY. fi>.mh«,n^t <•„•„

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. -{ * Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez: Life and Work- &c. ( Rubens (in part)

PASQUALE VILLARI.

See the biographical article: VILLARI, PASQUALE.

J Rimini; Rome: Roman Re- public in the Middle Ages.

REYNOLD ALLEYNE NICHOLSON, M.A., Lnr.D.

Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge. Sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Persian at University College, London. J Sabians. Author of Selected Poems from the Divani Shamsi Tabriz; A Literary History of I the Arabs ; &c. {

SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE JEBB, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE.

REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., D.LITT.

Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, . Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees ; &c.

Revelation, Book of.

Xll

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

R. J. M R. L.*

R. N. B.

R. R. M. R. S. C.

R. W. F. H. S. A. C.

stc.

S. H. V.*

S. N. T. As.

T. A. I.

T. Ba.

T. B. L. T. H.*

T. Wo. T. W.-D.

W. A. B. C.

W. A. P.

RONALD JOHN McNEiLL, M.A.

r Richmond, Earls and Dukes of;

Christ Church, Oxford. Gazette, London.

Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's - Richmond and Lennox,

RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.p.S.

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum ; The Deer of all Lands ; &c.

ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909).

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1000; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725: Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 to 1706 ; &c.

ROBERT RANULPH MARF.TT, M.A.

Reader in Social Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College. Formerly Dean and Sub-Rector of Exeter College. Author of " The Threshold of Religion.

ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A:, D.Lrrr.

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville 1 and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.

Duchess of; Sacheverell, William.

Reindeer; Rhinoceros(j» part}-, Rhytina; River-hog; Rocky Mountain Goat; Rodentia; Roe-buck; Rorqual.

Repnin; Reuterholm, Baron;

Sadolin, Jorgen.

Religion: Primitive Religion; Ritual.

r Rome: Ancient History (in i part);

ROBERT WILLIAM FREDERICK HARRISON.

. _ .

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, London. | no"dl Iel"> lne<

f

STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A C

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College,

Rnnlr nf t;*, h,ri\- °° parl) '

*

Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of \ T . "' °° Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes »aDDatn (t* part). on Old Testament History ; Religion of A ncient Palestine ; &c.

f Roman Catholic Church (in.

\ part).

VISCOUNT ST CYRES.

See the biographical article: IDDESLEIGH, 1st EARL OF.

SYDNEY HOWARD VINES, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University, and Fellow of Magdalen i r,.T , D,

College. Fellow of the University of London. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and J "el Lecturer, of Christ's College, Cambridge. President of the Linnean Society, 1900— I Sachs, Julius VOD. 1904. Author of A Student's Text-Book of Botany; &c.

SIMON NEWCOMB, D.Sc., L.L.D.

See the biographical article: NEWCOMB, SIMON.

Refraction: Astronomical Refraction.

Regillus; Regium; Rovigo;

THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LiTT. (Oxon.).

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ

Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of .•

the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography I Rusellae; Ruvo;

of the Roman Campagna. [ st Bernard Passes (in part).

THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D.

Trinity College, Dublin. | Sacrilege: English Law.

SIR THOMAS BARCLAY. r

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Black- ' burn, 1910.

THOMAS BELL LIGHTFOOT, M.lNST.C.E., M.INST.MECH.E. Author of Preservation of Foods by Cold; &c.

•1 Refrigerating.

THOMAS HARRIS, M.D., F.R.C.P. r

Formerly Hon. Physician to Manchester Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Diseases I Respiratory System: Pathology

of the Respiratory Organs at Owens College, Manchester. Author of numerous] (in part).

articles on diseases of the respiratory organs.

r Rope and Rope-making; THOMAS WOODHOUSE. J gac^jng and Sack Manu-

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. 1 facture' Sailcloth

WALTER THEODORE WATTS-DUNTON.

See the biographical article: WATTS-DUNTON, WALTER THEODORE.

REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D.

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxtord. Professor of English History, St David's College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphine; The Range of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c.

WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A.

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c.

-: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.

f Referendum and Initiative;

Reschen Scheideck;

Rhine: Swiss Portion;

Rhone; Rorschach;

Rosa, Monte; Rovereto;

St Bernard Passes (in part). r Rochet: Church of England;

Roman Catholic Church (in part);

Russia: Government and Ad- *• ministration.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

xm

W. E. A. A.

W. H. F. W. J. H.*

W. M.-L.

W. M. R. W. P. C. W. P. P. L.

W. R. D.

W. R. K. W. R. M.

W. R. S.

WILLIAM EDMUND ARMYTAGE AXON, LL.D.

Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c.

SIR WILLIAM H. FLOWER, F.R.S.

See the biographical article: FLOWER, SIR W. H.

WILLIAM JAMES HUGHAN.

Past S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge of England. of Freemasonry.

4 Roscoe, William. | Rhinoceros (in part).

Author of Origin of the English Rite -I Rosicrucianism.

WlLHELM MEYER-LUBKE, PH.D.

H of rat of the Austrian Empire. Professor of Romance Philology in the University of Vienna. Author of Grammalik der Romanischen Sprachen; £c.

WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI.

See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE G.

WILLIAM PRIDEAUX COURTNEY.

See the biographical article: COURTNEY, BARON.

WILLIAM PITT PREBLE LONGFELLOW.

Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Editor of the American Architect. Author of Cyclopaedia of Architecture in Italy, Greece and the Levant; &c.

WYNDHAM ROLAND DUNSTAN, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S.

Director of the Imperial Institute, London. Formerly Lecturer on Chemistry in its Relations to Medicine in the University of Oxford. Professor of Chemistry to - the Pharmaceutical Society and Lecturer on Chemistry at St Thomas's Hospital, London. Author of British Cotton Cultivation ; &c.

RT. HON. SIR WILLIAM RANN KENNEDY, LL.D. r

Lord of Appeal. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of the ]

British Academy. Judge of King's Bench Division of High Court of Justice, 1892-"! Russell Of Klllowen, Lord. 1907.

WILLIAM RICHARD MORFILL, M.A. (d. 1910). f

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University J of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; \

Slavonic Literature ; &c.

-' Romance Languages.

J Ribera, Giuseppe; I Rosa, Salvator.

/ Rosslyn, Earl of; I Russell, 1st Earl. f Richardson, Henry Hobson.

Rubber.

Russian Literature.

WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

See the biographical article: SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON.

I* Reuchlin;

« Ruth, Book of (in part)-* [ Sabbath (in part).

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Reflection of Light.

Regensburg.

Regent.

Reims.

Renfrewshire.

Rennes.

Reporting.

Republic.

Resorcin.

Retainer.

Reunion.

Reuss.

Reynard the Fox.

Rhine Province.

Rhode Island.

Rhodium.

Rhubarb.

Rice.

Richmond (Surrey).

Richmond (Va.).

Rickets.

Riding.

Riesengebirge.

Rinderpest.

Rio de Janeiro.

Rio Grande do Sul (State).

Riot.

Ripon.

Roads and Streets.

Rochester (Kent).

Rochester (N.Y.).

Rodney.

Rodriguez.

Roland, Legend of.

Rome (N.Y.).

Romulus.

Root.

Rosaceae.

Roscommon, Co.

Rose.

Roses, Wars of the.

Ross and Cromarty.

Rostock.

Rothschild.

Rotterdam.

Rouen.

Roulette.

Roussillon.

Roxburghshire.

Rubidium.

Rubinstein.

Rugen.

Running.

Russo-Japanese War.

Rutebeuf.

Ruthenium,

Rutland.

Ryazan.

Sacramento (Cal.).

Saffron.

Saint Albans.

Saint Andrews.

St Augustine (Fla.)>

St Denis.

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXIII

REFECTORY (med. Lat. refectorium, from reficere, to refresh), the hall of a monastery, convent, &c., where the religious took their chief meals together. There frequently was a sort of ambo, approached by steps, from which to read the legenda sanctorum, &c., during meals. The refectory was generally situated by the side of the S. cloister, so as to be removed from the church but contiguous to the kitchen; sometimes it was divided down the centre into two aisles, as at Fountains Abbey in England, Mont St Michel in France and at Villiers in Belgium, and into three aisles as in St Mary's, York, and the Bernardines, Paris. The refectory of St Martin-des-Champs in Paris is in two aisles, and is now utilized as the library of the Ecole des Arts et Metiers.